War Crimes

In Liberia, rebel commanders and fighters suspected of being responsible for war crimes and human rights violations still walk free, many years after the end of the civil war (2003) which cost an estimated 200,000 Liberians their lives.
However, over the years, a number of suspected Liberian and non-Liberian war criminals have been arrested in other countries, indicted, put on trial or are still awaiting their trial (in Belgium, France, the Netherlands, Switzerland, UK, USA).

The overview below presents them in alphabetical order, the date of the arrest, and the status of the trial.
The list also includes a limited, not exhaustive number of Liberians who - until now - have managed to escape from justice as well as two Liberian high-ranking rebel commanders who passed away before paying for their crimes.

Latest update: Guus Kouwenhoven, September 23, 2021

Warlords and war criminals in alphabetical order:

George Boley (deported from the USA; a free man in Liberia)
George Dweh (deceased)
Jankuba Fofana (arrested in the UK)
Mohammed Jabbateh / Jungle Jabbah (30 years jail sentence)
Martina Johnson (arrested in Belgium)
Prince Y. Johnson (wanted by the US; a free man in Liberia )
Kunti Kamara / Awaliwo Soumaworo (arrested in France)
Alieu Kosiah (arrested in Switzerland; 20 years jail sentence)
Guus Kouwenhoven (Dutch; 19 years jail sentence; fugitive in SA)
Gibril Massaquoi (Sierra Leonean; arrested in Finland; trial ongoing)
Agnes Reeves Taylor (arrested in the UK, released; free in Liberia)
Charles Taylor (sentenced to 50 years in jail by the SCSL)
Chuck Taylor (USA; 97 years jail sentence)
Moses Thomas (arrested in the USA, fled to Liberia, free man)
Thomas Woewiyu (USA; found guilty; died before being sentenced)
Alexander Zinnah (deported from the USA; a free man in Liberia)



George Boley

George Boley, President Samuel Doe's right-hand man, was arrested in January 2010 by the US immigration authorities. He was charged with lying in order to gain entry into the U.S., and with committing extrajudicial killings while in another country. Boley, who denied the accusations, was in custody for two years. In 2012 he was deported from the USA - the official reason for his deportation was his role in the recruitment and use of child soldiers - and sent back to Liberia where he is a free man, despite one of the main recommendations of Liberia's Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) to prosecute him for war crimes together with a number of other Liberian warlords. In 2017 he was elected in the House of Representatives, representing Grand Gedeh County, his home county.

George Boley, Liberian Warlord, Is Finally Under Arrest
NB A must-read; a first hand report on Dr. George Boley's involvement in Liberia's civil war including the recruitment and arming of child soldiers; feeding them drugs; and ordering them to rape and kill.
January 27, 2010
Source: The Atlantic - Jeffrey Goldberg

Liberia ex-warlord George Boley to be deported from US
February 7, 2012
Source: BBC

George Dweh

George Dweh, Notorious Civil War Actor, Is Dead

George Dweh died of a heart attack in April 2020 without being tried for his role in war crimes and human rights violations during Liberia's civil war(s).

"George Dweh, a cousin of the late President Samuel K. Doe, is on record for his active role in systematic killings of Manos, Gios and other perceived enemies in Monrovia during the Liberian civil war. He, according to reports, was a member of the Nyonblu Tailey death squad that roamed Monrovia especially Sinkor at the height of the civil war in 1990. (...)

In one human rights report about massacres committed in Liberia, George Dweh is recorded among others as one who allegedly participated in the massacre of 27 Gio and Mano families that were members of the Armed Forces of Liberia (AFL) residing at the Barclay Training Center (BTC). In other instances, George Dweh is recorded for allegedly eliminating the Johnny Nah family in Monrovia in 1990, and participated in the massacre of 250 persons, most of them Gio and Mano tribes, at the John F. Kennedy Hospital on August 2, 1990.

Dweh’s later became an active member of LURD (Liberia United for Reconciliation and Democracy) that invaded Liberia in 1999 in Lofa County from neighboring Guinea. He subsequently became a founding member of the Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL) that came by way of the Ivory Coast in 2003."

Source: Daily Observer - Joaquin M. Sendolo
April 6, 2020

Jankuba Fofana

On Thursday, August 27, 2020 the British Police detained Jankuba Fofana, a former fighter and a frontline commander for the Liberia United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD). The 45-year-old Fofana was arrested in southeast London on suspicion of war crimes committed in Liberia during this country's civil war, between 1989 and 2003. Later he was set free pending investigation.

Man arrested in London on suspicion of Liberia civil war crimes released under investigation
Officers questioned the suspect, a 45-year-old- Liberian man, Jankuba Fofana, at a central London police station before releasing him on Friday.
Jankuba Fofana, a former LURD commander, was arrested on suspicion of offences contrary to section 51 of the International Criminal Court Act 2001.

Source: Evening Standard (UK)
August 29, 2020

Top LURD Rebel Frontline Commander Arrested In London For War Crimes

"Fofana was a major player in the civil war and was at the center of ceasefire talks between Taylor’s forces and LURD at the height of the civil war."

Source: FrontPage Africa (Liberia)
August 28, 2020

Jungle Jabbah / Mohammed Jabbateh

Mohammed Jabbateh a.k.a. Jungle Jabbah was a high-ranking officer of ULIMO-K. He was arrested in Philadelphia in April 2016, put on trial, found guilty, and in 2018 sentenced  to 30 years in prison. The sentence was upheld in September 2020.

The Jungle Jabbah Case: An Overview
French version: Le cas Mohammed Jabbateh
Source: Civitas Maxima

Jungle Jabbah: Maximum Sentence Confirmed
September 8, 2020

Delco War Criminal 'Jungle Jabbah' Sentenced to 30 years in prison
April 19, 2018

Liberian warlord 'Jungle Jabbah' sentenced to 30 years in prison is milestone for global justice - Statement by Civita Maxima and the GJRP, Global Justice and Research Project
April 19, 2018

Martina Johnson
Martina Johnson was arrested in Belgium in 2014. She has not been tried yet; she has been placed under house arrest.

Belgian investigators drag feet on Martina Johnson (April 2, 2020)
The pace of Belgian investigations into the role of alleged rebel commander Martina Johnson during the Liberian civil war is trying the patience of the defence and civil parties.

Six years after the case was opened, investigations have not yet been concluded and Belgian investigators have not yet been to Liberia, whilst other European judicial authorities have.

It is incomprehensible that the Belgian judicial authorities are unable to obtain authorization to investigate in Liberia.

April 2, 2020
JusticeInfo.Net - Fondation Hirondelle - Gaelle Ponselet

Martina Johnson
Arrested in Belgium (2014);

Prince Y. Johnson

Perhaps Liberia's most notorious (former) warlord, Prince Y. Johnson, needs no introduction. Under his command and upon his orders, his men of the I-NPFL (Independent Patriotic Front of Liberia, a break-away faction of Charles Taylor's NPFL) tortured to death Samuel Doe, then President of Liberia (September 1990). The crime was videotaped and circulated widely in West Africa and elsewhere. It's still available on YouTube.

But PYJ, as he is commonly called, is responsible for many more atrocities. One of his crimes concerns the murder of a US citizen, Hladini, who was born as Linda Jury, but later joined the Hara Krishna movement (officialy called the International Society for Krishna Consciousness, ISKCON) . In 1990 she was brutally murdered by Prince Johnson and his men.

Since 2005, warlord-turned-preacher-and-senator Prince Johnson  has been representing Nimba County, his home county, in the Liberian Senate.

U. S. Gov’t to Prosecute Senator Prince Y. Johnson for Killing Citizen in 1990, As New Evidence Emerges

Source: the Independent Probe
August 25, 2020

Kunti Kamara / Awaliho Soumaworo

Awaliho Soumaworo a.k.a. Kunti Kamara
Arrested in France (2018); released due to a procedural errror (2019)Re-arrested in France, January 10, 2020 (see below)

Kunti Kamara, whose real name is (might be) Awaliho Soumaworo, is a Liberian with Dutch nationality. He was arrested in France on September 4, 2018 for his alleged involvement in crimes committed during the First Liberian Civil War (1989-1996) while acting as a ULIMO-K commander. He is accused of human rights violations including torture, using child soldiers, murder, slavery, even cannibalism.

More specifically, the 44-year-old Liberian Kunti Kamara, a former commander of ULIMO (United Movement of Liberia for Democracy) is suspected of involvement in abuses during the civil war in Liberia between 1992 and 1997. According to a testimony collected by the association Civitas Maxima, he would have opened the belly of a man with an axe in order to eat his heart with his men. The complaint also accuses him of enslaving people of an ethnicity different from his own and the murder of a woman considered a witch.

France seeks trial for Liberian accused of crimes against humanity
Justice Info - Fondation Hirondelle
November 4, 2020

Ex-Rebel Commander Accused of War Crimes Rearrested in France
FrontPageAfrica, Monrovia, Liberia
January 15, 2020

Liberian war crimes suspect rearrested in France
Nordic Africa News
January 14, 2020

Kunti K. back in pre-trial detention
Kunti K., who was released from pre-trial detention in September 2019 due to a procedural error (see below), was arrested again on January 10, 2020 for violating the conditions placed on his release.
Kunti K. à nouveau placé en détention provisoire (scroll for French text)
Source: Civitas Maxima - January 10, 2020

September 2019, in an unexpected development:
Early September 2019, Kunti Kamara, who was in pre-trial detention in Paris on suspicion of crimes against humanity and torture, was released due to a procedural error. The former ULIMO-K commander was placed under judicial supervision with the prohibition to leave the national territory (France). See the following articles:

An ex-colonel suspected of crimes against humanity released in Paris because of "a procedural error"
MBS News
September 7, 2019

French version:
Un ex-colonel soupçonné de crimes contre l’humanité libéré à Paris à cause d’«une erreur de procédure»
France Sputnik News
September 7, 2019

Liberia: Ex-Warlord Kunti K. Released from Detention Due to Procedural Error
FrontPageAfrica, Monrovia, Liberia
September 10, 2019

Kunti K. released due to a procedural error (English version)
Kunti K. remis en liberté à cause d’un vice de forme (French version - scroll)
Civitas Maxima, September 9, 2019

Articles related to his arrest:

Victims Group: Liberia collaborated with Foreign Government in War Crime Case for First Time
Liberia collaborated with French authorities in an investigation in Lofa County earlier this year in war crime case against Kunti Kamara, a former general of the Liberation Movement for Democracy in Liberia (ULIMO)
FrontPageAfrica, Monrovia, Liberia
June 12, 2019

Ex-ULIMO Commander Arrested in France for War Crimes in Liberia
FrontPageAfrica, Monrovia, Liberia
September 7, 2018

Un Libérien soupçonné de crime contre l’humanité arrêté à Bobigny
(translattion: A Liberian, suspected of crimes against humanity, was arrested in Bobigny (France)
Eric Pelletier, September 7, 2018

Alieu Kosiah
Arrested in Switzerland (Nov., 2014); officially indicted (March 2019); trial postponed ; trial opened (December, 2020);found guily (July 2021), gets 20 years in jail.
Also see Civitas Maxima homepage:   Latest News

Facts on Alieu Kosiah

The Trial that Made Swiss Judges Go Down in History
Source: Civitas Maxima
July 20, 2021

The article above is a translation of “Le procès qui a fait entrer des juges suisses dans l’histoire” originally posted on Le Temps on July 14, 2021. This article was part of the special Op Ed section on Le Temps dedicated to international justice, with Alain Werner, director of Civitas Maxima, serving as guest editor.

Liberia: Ex-ULIMO Commander Gets 20 Years in Switzerland for War Crimes
Source: Front Page Africa, Liberia
July 18, 2021

Situation as of January 31, 2021
On 31 October 2019, the Swiss Federal Criminal Court (FCC) listed the criminal case against Alieu Kosiah for trial in Bellinzona. The Court has decided to only proceed with the preliminary questions and the hearing of the defendant from December 3 to December 11, 2020. The rest of the trial – the hearing of the plaintiffs and the witnesses, and the final pleadings – will take place from February 15 to March 5, 2021. This will be the first time a Liberian national will be tried for war crimes in relation to the Liberian Civil Wars, and the first time the FCC will hold a war crimes trial.
Source: Civitas Maxima

Latest developments 2020

Two recent background articles based on interviews in Liberia:

Part Two:
Liberia: Kosiah ‘Loved Looting’ And Was Called ‘Physical Cash’
FrontPageAfrica, Monrovia, Liberia - James Harding Giahyue
December 11, 2020

Part One:
Foya Wants Death Sentence for Alieu Kosiah in War Crimes Trial
FrontPageAfrica, Monrovia, Liberia - James Harding Giahyue
December 8, 2020

On His Trial in Switzerland - December 2020:

Liberia: Alieu Kosiah Laments Frustration over Trial, Imprisonment; Insists on His Innocence On Day 4 of War Crimes Trial In Switzerland
FrontPageAfrica, Monrovia, Liberia - Rodney Sieh
December 9, 2020

Liberia: At War Crimes Trial in Switzerland, A Tearful Kosiah Admits to being Founding Member of ULIMO
FrontPageAfrica, Monrovia, Liberia - Rodney Sieh
December 5, 2020

Liberian rebel commander accused of cannibalism goes on trial in Switzerland
Alieu Kosiah is also accused of being involved in killing of 18 civilians, rape and recruiting child soldier
The Guardian
December 3, 2020

Trial of Liberian Alieu Koosiah opens in Switzerland
Alieu Kosiah, a former Liberian warlord, is the first person to be tried in Switzerland for war crimes before a civil court. His trial has been repeatedly postponed. It opens on 3 December in Bellinzona in a tense atmosphere, after six years of pre-trial detention and under the restrictive sanitary conditions of a pandemic. A challenge for the Swiss federal prosecutor's office. And an important moment for Liberia.
Justice Info, Fondation Hirondelle - Antoine Harari
December 3, 2020

Liberia: Swiss Court Set to Hear Charges Against Accused ULIMO Civil War Criminal Alieu Kosiah
FrontPageAfrica, Monrovia, Liberia - Rodney Sieh
December 1, 2020

Trial of former Liberian rebel leader Alieu Kosiah set to begin in Switzerland
Today News Africa
December 1, 2020
This article contains many interesting links related to Kosiah's arrest, accusations a.s.o.

Trial of alleged Liberian war criminal Alieu Kosiah to begin in Switzerland
Business Live, South Africa - Emma Farge
December 1, 2020

Historic Liberia war crimes trial to open in Switzerland
The trial of Alieu Kosiah, a former Liberian commander accused of rape, pillage, assassinations, and an act of cannibalism opens in Switzerland this week.
Reuters - Emma Farge
December 1, 2020

The tral of Alieu Kosiah will begin next week, but will be partially postponed
On November 23, 2020 the Swiss Federal Criminal Court announced that the Alieu Kosiah trial will be partially postponed until the beginning of 2021 – tentatively in February.
November 23, 2020
Civitas Maxima

New dates set for Alieu Kosiah Trial in 2020
After being postponed twice due to the Covid-19 virus, the trial of Alieu Kosiah is scheduled to take place in Bellinzona, Switzerland, from November 16 till December 18, 2020.
August 21, 2020
Civitas Maxima

COVID-19: Alieu's trial postponed
March 16, 2020
Civitas Maxima

Swiss court postpones Liberia war crimes trial over coronavirus
March 18, 2020
FrontPage Africa (Liberia)

Swiss court postpones Liberia war crimes trial over coronavirus
March 18, 2020
Swiss Justice (Switzerland)

Alieu Kosiah’s War Crimes Trial Postponed
March 20, 2020
Daily Observer (Liberia)

Summary 2014 - 2019

Swiss court drops massacre charge against former Liberian rebel leader
GNN Liberia, Cholo Brooks, November 26, 2019

Swiss Court Announce Date for Former ULIMO Warlord, Kosiah
FrontPageAfrica, November 4, 2019

Alieu Kosiah Trial Date Set For April 2020 (English version)
La date du procès d’Alieu Kosiah est fixée au mois d’avril 2020 (French version - scroll)
Civitas Maxima, November 1, 2019

Switzerland to Prosecute Ex-ULIMO Commander for War Crimes in Liberia
March 28, 2019
Daily Observer, Monrovia, Liberia

Switzerland Indicts Ex-ULIMO General for War Crimes in Liberia
March 27, 2019
FrontPageAfrica, Monrovia, Liberia

Former Liberian Rebel Commander to face trial in Switzerland
Press release
Civitas Maxima / GJRP - Global Justice and Research Project
March 27, 2019
French - Français - Communiqué de presse
Un ancien commandant rebelle libérien sera renvoyé en jugement en Suisse
Le 27 mars 2019

International Crimes: Spotlight on Switzerland’s War Crimes Unit
By Julia Crawford, JusticeInfo.net
February 15, 2019
"Former Liberian rebel leader Alieu Kosiah is one of the two people in custody in a Swiss jail under universal jurisdiction. He has been there for more than four years, suspected of war crimes in his country. The other is former Gambian Interior Minister Ousman Sonko, arrested in early 2017 and under investigation for crimes against humanity. Both cases were brought to the war crimes unit by Swiss NGOs – Civitas Maxima and TRIAL International respectively."

Paris arrest a new step to justice for Liberian war crimes
By Thierry Cruvellier, JusticeInfo.net
September 11, 2018
"2018 is a good year for the activists who have vowed they will not let the crimes committed in Liberia’s wars of the 1990s go unpunished. After two landmark judgments in the United States, they have now got another arrest in Paris, and trials are also expected in three other European countries." Read the article for more details.

Former Liberian ULIMO Rebel Commander Arrested in Switzerland for Alleged War Crimes.
Press Release
Civitas Maxima / GJRP - Global Justice and Research Project
January 16, 2015
French - Français - Communiqué de Presse
Ancien Commandant Libérien des Forces ULIMO Arrêté en Suisse pour sa Participation Présumée dans des Crimes de Guerre.
Le 16 janvier 2015

Liberian ex-rebel leader arrested in Switzerland
November 10, 2014
JusticeInfo.net, Fondation Hirondelle

Guus Kouwenhoven

'Dutch fugitive' Guus Kouwenhoven
Found guilty by Dutch Supreme Court and sentenced (2017); fled to South Africa; the Dutch requested his extradition; South African decison multiple times postponed; extradition request definitely denied (Febr 2020); visitor's visa cancelled, declared an 'undesirable person' (Nov 2020); denial of extradition request overruled (Dec 2020). On September 22, 2021 the Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa dismissed Kouwenhoven's appeal. As one newspaper reported: 'The South African Government is now free to extradite Mr. Kouwenhoven to the Netherlands.' (African Star, September 22, 2021, see below).

Hence, the question emerges: Will South African autorities finally put Kouwenhoven on a plane to Amsterdam, will the convicted war criminal flee from justice or will Kouwenhoven's expensive lawyers be once more successfull in delaying justice? The Supreme Court of Appeal of South Africa notes in its Judgement (page 3, note 2): 'He (Kouwenhoven - note of the webmaster FVDK) has lodged an appeal to the European Court of Human Rights, which it appears is still pending.'

It's odd that a man who has been found guilty of the illegal importation of arms which were used to kill innocent civilians in Africa, tries to save his skin with an appeal to the European Court of Human Rights!

The extradition saga
At the end of 2019, hope re-emerged that Kouwenhoven would soon be extradited, after an address by senior prosecutor Christopher Burke (South Africa) before the Cape Town Magistrate's Court.

However, to the disappointment of many, o
n February 21, 2020 Cape Town Magistrate Ingrid Arntsen ruled in favour of Guus Kouwenhoven. She said it was with “great regret” she had decided that Dutch arms dealer Guus Kouwenhoven could not be extradited to the Netherlands because 'the Extradition Act made it clear that people could be extradited only in relation to offences alleged to have been committed within the territorial jurisdiction of the state requesting extradition.'

On March 16, 2020 the Southern Africa Litigation Centre (SALC) was seeking an order to set aside a visa granted to the convicted Dutch war criminal. The rights group will argue that Kouwenhoven did not disclose his conviction for war crimes when applying for a visa.

Update as of December 30, 2020
In an unexpected development
South Africa cancelled the visitor's visa of Guus Kouwenhoven and declared him an "undesirable person" whereas the State successfully appealed the denial of the extradition request by the Cape Town Magistrates' Court.

Following a hearing of the case on 27 October 2020, the Department of Home Affairs (DHA, South Africa) on 5 November 2020 declared Kouwenhoven undesirable in terms of sections 30(1)(f) and (g) of the Immigration Act, and notified him of the decision to cancel his visitor’s visa. Kouwenhoven can now appeal the decision by the DHA. If he fails to make representations, within ten days, the cancellation of his visa will become effective.

The South African State - in the person of the Western Cape’s Director of Public Prosecutions, via Advocate Christopher Burke - successfully appealed the February 2020 Cape Town Magistrates’ Court ruling (denying the extradition request). On December 23, 2020 the Western Cape High Court ruled in favor of the State appeal. This means that Kouwenhoven may still face extradition.

For more details and the full background of the Kouwenhoven saga visit the link 'Dutch fugitive' Guus Kouwenhoven

Gibril Massaquoi
Former RUF commander and SierraLeone national, arrested in Finland in March 2020; accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity allgedly committed in Liberia. Gibril Massaquoi played an important role - as a key-witness - during the trial of warlord-turned-president Charles Taylor who was found guilty of war crimes and human rights violations in Sierra Leone and sentenced to 50 years in prison by the Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL).

Latest news:

The trial of Gibril Masaquoi in Finland has started on February 1, 2021. Throughout the trial, Civitas Maxima publishes daily legal monitoring for audiences around the world to follow the case. The verdict of the Finnish court is expected in 2022.

Finnish Court To Hand Down Judgment In Early 2022:

Pirkanmaa Court To Hand Down Judgment In Gibril Massaquoi Case Early 2022
Source: GNN, Liberia
July 13, 2021

Interesting reflection: The following article was part of the special Op Ed section on Le Temps dedicated to international justice, with Civitas Maxima director Alain Werner serving as guest editor.

The Fight Against Impunity at the Heart of Swiss Foreign Policy
Source: Civitas Maxima
July 21, 2021

The article above is a translation of “La lutte contre l’impunité au cœur de la politique étrangère de la Suisse” originally posted on Le Temps on July 14, 2021.

The following press release published by Civitas Maxima serves as an example. For more press releases on the Massaquoi trial please visit the Civitas Maxima site.

31/03/21 [Liberia] Day 23: The Hearing of Witnesses 42, 43, and 44
The twenty-third day of public hearings resumed on March 31, 2021 in Monrovia, Liberia.
Source: Civitas Maxima - April 13, 2021

Liberian history in the making: groundbreaking decision regarding Gibril Massaquoi’s trial
Civitas Maxima - February 1, 2021
French - Français - Communiqué de presse:
L’histoire du Libéria en marche : grande première au procès de Gibril Massaquoi

Universal jurisdiction: The Finnish revolution
February 1, 2021
JusticeInfo.Net - Fondation Hirondelle - Thierry Cruvellier

War Crimes Trial Coming to Liberian Soil
Liberia is set to host the first war crimes trial connected to the country’s civil war in February.
The Pirkanmaa District Court in Finland announced Thursday that it will begin the trial of Gibril Massaquoi, a Sierra Leonean, for war crimes allegedly committed in Liberia in his role as a commander of the Revolutionary United Front (RUF) between 2001 and 2002 next week. Later in February the court will move to Liberia and Sierra Leone to hear from “several dozen witnesses named in the case” in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea and visits to the scenes of the alleged crimes, the court said in a press release.
January 30, 2021
FrontPageAfrica, Monrovia, Liberia - James Harding Giahyue

Trial of former RUF commander set to begin before Finnish court
The trial of Sierra Leonean national and Tampere resident, Gibril Massaquoi, will begin on 1st February 2021 before the Pirkanmaa District Court in Finland, and is expected to last for several months.
Civitas Maxima - News, January 25, 2021
French - Français - Communiqué de presse:
Début du procès d’un ancien commandant du RUF devant un tribunal finlandais

The Massaquoi Affair: Special Report on the Judas of Sierra Leone(Part 2)
April 14, 2020
JusticeInfo.Net - Fondation Hirondelle - Thierry Cruvellier

The Massaquoi Affair: Special Report on the Judas of Sierra Leone (Part 1)
April 7, 2020
JusticeInfo.Net - Fondation Hirondelle - Thierry Cruvellier

A citizen of Sierra Leone arrested by NBI on suspicion of serious crimes in Liberia in 1999–2003
Poliisi, Police of Finland - March 11, 2020

Police arrest Sierra Leone war crimes suspect living in Finland
News Now Finland - March 11, 2020

Former RUF commander arrested in Finland over war crimes and crimes against humanity allegedly committed in Liberia
Civitas Maxima - March 11, 2020

Some background information on Gibril Massaquoi
'Special Court for Sierra Leone, AFRC Trial, Update 58'
Stanford Centre for Human Rights and International Justice
October 10, 2005
Report of Working Group 8 (Group coordinator: Gibril Massaaquoi)
February 25, 2010

Agnes Reeves Taylor (ex-wife of Charles Taylor)

Arrested in the UK (2017); torture charges dismissed (2019); returned to Liberia (July 2020)
(Chronological order - most recent article first)

On Friday, July 17, 2020 Agnes Reeves Taylor again set foot on Liberian soil - seven months after her release from a UK prison - and arrived on RIA where she was welcomed by stalwarts of the NPP party, the political party created by her former husband, Charles Taylor. 

Liberia: Charles Taylor’s NPP Welcomes ‘Founding Mother’ Agnes Taylor; Months After War Crimes Charges Dropped in UK
FrontPage Africa (Liberia), July 19, 2020

British judge dismisses torture charges against ex-wife of former Liberian president Charles Taylor
Daily Mail, Richard Spillet, December 6, 2019

Torture charges against former Liberia leader's ex-wife dismissed
BBC, Dominic Casciani, December 6, 2019

Historic Torture Case against Agnes Taylor Dismissed (English version)
La procédure historique à l’encontre d’Agnes Taylor pour torture est rejetée (French version - scroll)
Civitas Maxima -
News, December 6, 2019

Liberia former first lady in UK court for torture charges
Agnes Taylor denies string of torture offenses, which date back to 1989-1991.
by Catherine Stancl - Al Jazeera (with video). March 21, 2019

Ex-wife of former Liberian president Charles Taylor denies string of torture charges
The Telegraph, October 10, 2018

Ex-wife of former Liberia leader Charles Taylor denies torture
BBC, October 10, 2018

Agnes Reeves Taylor
Arrested in the UK (2017); not yet tried.

Charles Taylor
- click here

Chuck Taylor (son of warlord-president Charles Taylor)

Chuck Taylor
Found guilty by US Court (2009); sentenced to 97 years in prison

Moses Thomas

Moses Thomas
Arrested in the US (2018). Before his trial started Thomas fled the United States (in 2020) and returned to Liberia, where he is a free man since the Liberian authorities fail to take action in the long dragging battle for the establishment of a War Crimes Court.

AFL colonel Moses Thomas was commander of the Special Terrorist Unit, and is being held responsable for the massacre in the St. Peter’s Lutheran Church in Sinkor, Monrovia, the single-worst atrocity in the Liberian Civil War, with about 600 people — predominantly Gios and Manos— savagely murdered on July 29, 1990.

In May 2021, a Liberian organisation, the Center for Justice and Accountability (CJA) requested on behalf of four victims the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania to find Moses Thomas “liable for extrajudicial killings, attempted extrajudicial killings, torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, war crimes and crimes against humanity.”

In September 2021, Moses Thomas was found “liable” in the U.S. for war atrocities.

Former Liberian Army Commander Moses Thomas Found “Liable” in the U.S. for War Atrocities
Source: African Star
September 17, 2021

Liberia: Lutheran Massacre Victims ask US Judge to find Ex-AFL Colonel Liable for the Slaughter
Source: FrontPageAfrica, Liberia
March 17, 2021

Alexander Mentol Zinnah

Former NPFL rebel commander deported from USA
On Tuesday, agents of the U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and Removal agency (ICE) escorted Alexander Mentol Zinnah on a U.S. Government plane to Liberia and turned him over the immigration authorities in the West African country.

African Star
April 30, 2020

Ex-Taylor-Era Security force Commander Alexander Mentol Zinnah among 9 deported to Liberia
MINNEAPOLIS — Alexander Mentol Zinnah, a member of the Liberian security forces under the regime of President Charles Taylor was removed by officers with U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s (ICE) Enforcement and Removal Operations (ERO).
Zinnah, 56, arrived in Liberia escorted by ERO officers on board an ICE charter removal flight and was turned over to Liberian law enforcement authorities.

In 2017, ICE Homeland Security Investigations (HSI) St. Paul arrested Zinnah for immigration violations and violating the terms of his parole into the U.S.
HSI St. Paul’s investigation revealed Zinnah was a member of Charles Taylor’s NPFL, that engaged in a wide range of human rights abuses including massacres, torture, and kidnapping. Zinnah was also a member of the Liberian National Police and served as a commander in Grand Gedeh County, Liberia, during the time that Charles Taylor was President of Liberia.

April 29, 2020

Thomas Woewiyu

Thomas Woewiyu, co-founder of the National Patriotic Front of Liberia (NPFL) and former NPFL spokesperson , later Charles Taylor’s Minister of Defense, was arrested in the USA in May 2014. He stood trial for alleged war crimes, immigration fraud and perjury and was found guilty.

Whilst awaiting sentencing he died of the corona virus in April 2020.

Thomas Woewiyu faced trial starting June 11, 2018. He was convicted of 11 out of 16 counts on July 3, 2018. He faces up to 110 years in prison. (source: Civitas Maxima). His sentencing, originally scheduled for October 15, was delayed by more than a month until November 26, US Justice Department officials announced on September 17, 2018.

Chronology of events (summary)
Latest news on top:

Jucontee Thomas Woewiyu dies of Covid-19

Thomas Woewiyu dies of Covid-19 whilst awaiting sentencing

April 13, 2020
Civitas Maxima - Global Justice and Research Project (CJRP)

Covid-19 claims life of Jucontee Thomas Woewiyu

April 12, 2020
FrontPageAfrica - Rodney Sieh

Short films:

Who is Thomas Woewiyu and why is he on trial? Key question 1
Civitas Maxima - YouTube
July 4, 2018

Key Question 2 - Trial of Thomas Woewiyu

Key Question 3 - Trial of Thomas Woewiyu

Key Question 4 - Trial of Thomas Woewiyu

Thomas Woewiyu conviction
Philly.com - YouTube
July 3, 2018

Thom Woewiyu makes first appearance in court
FrontPageAfrica - YouTube
June 12, 2018

Official US documents:

Liberian War Criminal Living in Delaware County Convicted of Immigration Fraud and Perjury | USAO-EDPA | Department of Justice
Tuesday, July 3, 2018

Alleged War Criminal Arrested On Fraud Charges | USAO-EDPA | Department of Justice
Tuesday, May 13, 2014

Alleged War Criminal Arrested
Original source: United States Department of Justice, The United States Attorney’s Office, Eastern District of Pennsylvania
May 13, 2014

Articles - general:

Thomas Woewiyu’s Trial and Liberia’s Quest for Justice
For any questions or inquiries, please contact info@civitas-maxima.org

Civitas Maxima

08.05.2016 ( Last modified: 04.07.2018 )
Trial international dot org

Articles - specific:

Woewiyu Sentencing Delayed by More Than a Month
FrontPageAfrica, Monrovia, Liberia, September 18, 2018

Thomas Woewiyu Found Guilty on 11 Counts in Philadelphia
FrontPageAfrica, Monrovia, Liberia, July 3, 2018

Delco man convicted of hiding past as Liberian war criminal
by Jeremy Roebuck and Kelly Brennan, The Inquirer
July 3, 2018 (updated)

U.S. District Court to Begin Hearing Tom Woewiyu Trial Feb. 26, 2018
By Al-Varney Rogers, FrontPageAfrica, Monrovia, Liberia
December 12, 2017




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